It's common to set an constant variable representing infinity. For example, to find the minimum number among a list, it's necessary to set an
a having the maximum value and change its value later.
Obviously, computers have no fixed way representing the concept "Infinity". So we can only set a constant to express "the maximum".
int, naturally we bring
0x7f ff ff ff to mind, since it's the maximum value of a 32-bit
0x7f ff ff ff = 2^31 - 1 = 2147483647).
Mostly it's proved to be practical. In many cases, such as picking the minimum number as described above, it is a good choice of infinity. But, when some problems related to arithmetic calculation, say relaxation operation in finding shortest paths:
def relax(u, v, w): if (d[u] + w[u][v] < d[v]): d[v] = d[u] + w[u][v]
data overflow may happen when using
0x7f ff ff ff as infinity. Because the first bit of an
int is used to express its sign.
So, to avoid that hidden danger,
0x3f 3f 3f 3f can be chosen to represent infinity. There're two advantages: firstly,
0x3f 3f 3f 3f = 1061109567 which is the same order of magnitude as
0x7f ff ff ff. Even though, twice of
0x3f 3f 3f 3f is within the range of
Secondly, it's widely accepted that
memset is the quickest way initializing an array in C language. The second parameter
memset is of 8-bit:
value: Value to be set. The
valueis passed as an
int, but the function fills the block of memory using the
unsigned charconversion of this value.
That's to say,
memset fills an array using an 8-bit value. Surprisingly, all the four eight bits of
0x3f 3f 3f 3f are same. So, it's safe to use
0x3f 3f 3f 3f to maximize an array, which improves effiency.
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